Ammar - Refraction of Light

Ammar - Reflection of Light

Ammar - Light Scientists

Ammar and Navin - ART Task Feedback

Ammar and Navin - Science Podcast

Ammar - Great Scientists

The problem the scientists were working to solve
The discovery they made and how they made it
The implications on society (then and today)
Howard Walter Florey
Not enough of medicine
He discovered penicillin as a medicine and a team of research researched a large scale production and efficient way to extract penicillin
By the 1950's, penicillin was widely used around the world to cure different types of infectious diseases. A lot of parents brought their kids to have a vaccination to prevent their children from contracting any deadly diseases. Even minor diseases could cost a life because there was no practice of hygiene then. Instead of curing patients, doctors could kill them by infecting their cuts or wounds.
Patients who work with cattle and had cowpox was a milder disease which never contracted smallpox
He tested his theory on 14th May 1796 on a 8 year old boy called James Phipps with cowpox . He extracted some pus from the sores of the person that had been infected with cowpox . Then he made two small cuts in James's arm and poured that liquid in. After six weeks in order to prove his theory he vaccinated him with the smallpox virus.
World Health Organization declared smallpox eradicated disease on 1980 . In 1800 , most of the vaccine worked and most of the disease uses vaccination
Food bacteria
Beer and wine would go sour, making it taste unpleasant and unfit to drink. He discovered that these alcoholic beverages contained a variety of microbes
He found round-shaped microbes .These were the yeast microbes that allowed fermentation. Fermentation is the process of turning sugar molecules into alcohol . He also found rod-shaped microbes which is the bacteria which causing the souring of the beers and wines
Developed pasteurization which is used all over the world especially for dairy products to avoid from microbes ruin its taste and quality . His research which is pasteur developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies.
Harmful microbes
1.The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.
2 .The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
3 .The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
4 .The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
He discovered anthrax which could survive for long periods by creating endospores and developed Koch's Postulates
Koch's Postulates which he develop are still using today . His devolution is vey good till its being used by doctors around the world
Multiplying bacteria
He wanted to find a cure of the disease which is the bacterial infection that killed many of the soldiers during WW1
He discovered antiseptics which killed the patients immune system more effectively than it killed the bacterial infection . He discovered antibiotic penicillin
He's discovery lead to scientific revolution in which then, and much of today scientist have been constantly trying to discover more cures to diseases and infections, without he' s remarkable discovery who knows how much scientist would have discovered
Howard Walter Florey- AISS (2012) Howard Walter Florey AISS Year 9 Science Wikispaces. Avaliable
Accessed on 21 February 2012.

Edward Jenner- AISS (2012)- Edward Jenner AISS Year 9 Science Wikispaces Available
Accessed on 21st February 2012.

Pastuer- AISS (2012)- Pastuer AISS Year 9 Science Wikispaces Available from
Accessed on 21st February 2012.

Robert Koch- AISS (2012)- Robert Koch AISS Year 9 Science Wikispaces Available
Accessed on 21st February 2012.

Alexander Flemming- AISS (2012)- Alexander Flemming AISS Year 9 Science Wikispaces Available
Accessed on 21st February 2012.

Ammar - Design a disease
Pandemic 2
Name of disease : Very dangerous disease

Background information for the disease :
-Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
-Bacteria are present in most habitats on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in
the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals , providing outstanding examples of
mutualism in the digestive tracts of humans, termites and cockroaches.

Cause :

Incidence :

Risk factors :
-Nutritional status
-Genetic predisposition

Symptoms :
-Pulmonary edema

Treatment :

Control :
overing coughs and sneezes
-Staying up-to-date with immunizations-Using gloves, masks and protective clothing-Making tissues and hand cleaners available-Following hospital guidelines when dealing with blood or contaminated items

Prevention :-Wash your hands-Get vaccinated-Don't go to work or school if you are vomiting , diarrhea or are running a fever .-Don't share personal items-Don't travel or fly when you're ill . You may infect other passengers on the plane-Keep counters and other kitchen surfaces clean when preparing meals .

Prognosis :

Ammar - Cariacature
- Virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms .
- Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.
- Viruses spread in many ways :
=Viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on the sap of plants, such as aphids
=Viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects

-A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and moulds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
-These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria.
-Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents.
-Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests


-A parasite lives in a close relationship with another organism, its host, and causes it harm.
-The parasite is dependent on its host for its life functions. For example, viruses are common parasites.
-The parasite has to be in its host to live, grow, and multiply.
-Parasites rarely kill their hosts.
-A common, well-known type of a parasite is a hookworm.
-It is possible for humans or their pets to get them.
-Hookworms attach themselves in the lining of the small intestine, and cause diseases, and malnutrition as well, as they eat the nutrients and keep them from going to the host.

-Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
-Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals
-Bacteria are present in most habitats on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste , water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals, providing outstanding examples of mutualism in the digestive tracts of humans, termites and cockroaches

Ammar - Case Report - Hepatitis C

Case Report
Patient name : Brian Lay
Age : 31
Gender : Male
History :Went to United States
Temperature : 32 degrees Celcius

Case Report

I have a patient 31 year-old male was referred to a hepatologist for a liver biopsy following presentation to an emergency department (ED) where he had complained of disturbances in sleeping , itchy skin and fatigue . Past history was remarkable when he's gone to United States for a vacation . United States have more than 3 million people
have antibodies to HCV, meaning they have been infected with the virus at some point as many as half of them do not know they have the infection.
My patient is treated with a combination of an injectable medicine called pegylated interferon alpha (Pegasys, PEG-Intron) and an oral antiviral drug called ribavirin. Treatment continues for weeks or months; the exact duration of treatment depends on the response and results of blood tests.Besides that , i asked him to eat a varied, healthy diet, take part in some physical activity daily, and get plenty of rest.I also asked him to drink plenty of water and other noncaffeinated fluids to stay well hydrated.

Well researched Ammar. Good work here.
Be sure to include your references also.

Ammar - Minamata disease

Minamata disease - Minamata disease is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
- Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata city in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan, in 1956.
-It was caused by the release of methylmercury in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso Corporation's chemical factory, which continued from
1932 - 1968
-This highly toxic chemical bioaccumulated in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea, which when eaten by the local populace
resulted in mercury poisoning

Types of diseases
Infectious disease - Smallpox , Pandemic , Typhus
Non-infectious disease - Asthma , Cancer , Heart disease
Environmental disease - Diseases connected with eggs and fry
-Tumors, genetic disorders

Good work again here Ammar.
You can upload your other work also, such as the One World Malaria practice task.
Well done getting your wiki page started,
Mrs S