Introduction
This unit builds on Chemistry knowledge you have obtained in your previous studies. So far you will have learned:
  • Solids, liquids and gases
  • Separation techniquesexternal image science_labwork_general.gif
  • The structure of an atom (protons, neutrons, electrons)
  • The periodic table (elements and where to find metals, non-metals, semimetals)
  • Chemical and physical changes
  • Some basic reaction types (combination, replacement, combustion)

If you are unsure of some of these ideas, you should do some revision (see below)

Kitchen Chemistry
We are going to study the following concepts:
  • ions
  • naming chemical compounds
  • bonding - ionic and covalent
  • pH
  • Acids & Bases
  • Neutralisation reactions (acid +base)
  • Acid + Carbonate reactions
  • Acid + Metal reactions
  • Precipitation reactions
  • Tests for carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases
  • Combustion reactions produces carbon dioxide
  • How carbon dioxide affects our planet and how we might use science to overcome some of these effects (e.g. Geosequestration)
  • saponification

Key words:
reactants, products, decomposition reaction, combination reaction, precipitation reaction, neutralisation reaction, acid + base reaction, acid + carbonate reaction, acid + metal reaction, combustion reaction, geosequestration/ carbon capture, biogas, pH, acid, base, indicator, titration, ionic compounds, carbonate, hydroxide, sulphate, nitrate, pop-test, limewater test, surfactant, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, saponification

Revision of Year 8 Material

Much of the basics of chemistry we need to know for this unit can be found in the topic Bonding Together.
Please read through those websites as the information in there will be assumed knowledge for your unit test on Kitchen Chemistry inTerm 2.


Atomic Model & Ions

BrainPops - here are the quiz sheets



Electron Dot Diagrams (electronic configuration)
Remember the magic numbers - 2,8,8,18


Now could you work out the ions of each of those atoms?
Remember - an atom wants to be stable, so it gains or loses electrons to have a full outer shell

Here's the periodic table


Can you recall the names of the groups? (eg. alkaline earth metals, noble gases...?)
Where is period 1? period 3?

BrainPop - Periodic Table

Label & colour the groups on your periodic table.
What pattern did you observe when completing the electron dot diagrams and working out the charges on the ions?
Add the charge of the ions for each of the groups at the top of each group on your periodic table.

Now... see what you know :-)


Chem for Kids
Great website for good visual explanations of basic chemistry
Review of Atomic Theory


Bonding

Atoms want to be stable. So they either gain or lose electrons to form ions and ionic bonds, or they share electrons with other atoms to form covalent bonds. Both ways result in the atoms having full outer shells of electrons.

BrainPop: Chemical Bonds


IONIC COMPOUNDS


Ionic compounds are compounds formed by the electrostatic attraction of ions.
That means a positive and a negative ion are attracted to each other, and so bond together.
When the charges on the ions are added together, the total charge on the compound equals zero.
Ionic compounds form between a metal and a non-metal (or metal + polyatomic ion).

Ions matching - cut and paste activity


Naming compounds (ionic compounds)




More naming practice for ionic compounds (SF homework book)



Chemical Formulae: Working out the chemical formula (and naming) of a compound




EXTENSION WORK: Ionic bonding shown in a digrammatic way. This is NOT needed for everybody, only if you'd like a challenge.




Acids & Bases are examples of ionic compounds

Neutralisation reaction




Reactions of Acids - Carbonates & Metals + pracs




Chef's Muddle Puzzle





Acids and Bases
Aqueous Solutions
Aqueous Solutions





  • Practice your data making skills, to collect your results





How much do you know?? Test yourself: Go to http://www.chem4kids.com/extras/quiz_reactacidbase/index.html and take an online quiz on Acids and Bases

Science Focus Homework book - p32-33 -> pH of common drinks

Neutralisation of Orange Juice

At home, pour some orange juice into a cup (citric acid is around pH 3). Add some bicarbonate of soda (pH 9).
Now... how does it taste?
Did you see bubbles come out of solution?
How would you explain this?

Lemonade Titration



Formula balancing

formulabalance.pdf

formulabalance2.pdf


Rates of Chemical Reactions


Naming Covalent Compounds
(Shared Files - Kitchen Chem 2012)



Drawing covalent bonds



Combustion of Magnesium


Combustion of methane experiment




Chemical reaction types

Saponification?

Making soap.doc
Geosequestration: A possible way to deal with carbon dioxide

After working through the worksheets for the BrainPops - Natural Resources, Energy Sources, Fossil Fuels, Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming - read these articles on Geosequestration:






And watch this informative animation on geosequestrations - otherwise known as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) - a video prepared to inform the residents of Alberta, Canada, on the implementation of the technology in their area:



Worksheet: Then... fill in this grid to prepare for a class debate on Geosequestration-


external image 080605163804-large.jpgActivities: Climate Change/Geosequestration


  • Complete page 22 to 29 of your SCIENCE 3 FOCUS Homework Book as year 8 chemistry revision.
  • You will have a class in the computer lab to work through theEnergy Sourcesand Fossil Fuels BRAIN POPS .
  • Complete the Natural Resources BRAIN POP at home.
  • We will work through the Greenhouse Effect BRAIN POP together in class.
  • Go back to the links on Geosequestration in a nutshell and CO2 futures above.

  • Watch the animation above.
  • Go to the Research_Task_global climate_ geosequestration link below and complete the three activities in preparation for THE DEBATE.
  • Use the Debate research grid scaffold link to plan your points for debate.
  • Your planning and your involvement in the debate will be assessed. (Criteria B: Communication & Criteria C: Knowledge and understanding)

THE DEBATE

  • There will be two teams of three debating the topic "Countries of the world should invest in carbon sequestration technology instead of renewable energy sources for electricity generation".
  • Work with your group to develop three debate points for and three debate points against.
  • Each team member will present a debate point.
  • Each team member will rebute a debate point made by the opposition.
  • The debate format will be repeated until everyone in the class has had an opportunity to be involved.




Experiments